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About Limestone

Limestone is calcareous sedimentary rocks formed at the bottom of lakes and seas with the accumulation of shells, bones and other calcium rich goods. It is composed of calcite (CaCO3). The organic matter upon which it settles in lakes or seas, are preserved as fossils. Over thousands and millions of years, layer after layer is built up adding weight. The heat and pressure causes chemical reaction at the bottom and the sediments turn into solid stone, the limestone.

The rock which contain more than 95% of calcium carbonate is known as high-calcium limestone. Recrystallised limestone takes good polish and is usually used as decorative and building stone.

A part of calcium molecules if being replaced by magnesium, it is known as magnesium lime stone or dolomite limestone.

Limestone that will take a polish are considered marbles by most people, but technically, if there are still shells visible or the structure is not crystalline, it is still a limestone.

Physical Properties of Limestone
Physically, Limestones are Quite impervious, Hard, Compact, fine to very fine grained calcareous rocks of sedimentary nature.


3 to 4 on Moh's Scale


2.5 to 2.7 Kg/cm3

Compressive Strength

60-170 N/mm2

Water Absorption

Less than 1%


Quite low

Weather Impact


Chemical Properties of Limestone
Chemically, they are calcareous rocks principally of calcic minerals with minor amounts of alumina, ferric & alkaline oxides.

Lime (CaO)


Silica (SiO2)


Alumina (Al2O3)



0.5 to 3%

FeO + Fe2O3




Loss On Ignition (LOI)


Note :- Limestone, like marble and other calcareous stones, are referred to as acid sensitive. Calcareous stones are readily dissolved in acid, therefore acidic products should not be used on limestone and marbles.

Uses of Limestone

  • Flooring
  • Wall cladding
  • Vanity tops
  • Furniture
  • Cement Production
  • Refining Metals
  • Blackboard chalk

Ocurrances of Limestone


Lampasas River area


Khasi, Jayantia and Garo Hills of Meghalaya
Satna limstone belt, Madhya Pradesh

United Kingdom

United Kingdom Alston, Cumbria
Stockfield, Northumberland
Doncaster, South Yorkshire
Moelfre, Gwynedd
Ancaster, Lincolnshire
Lincoln, Lincolnshire
Oakham, Leicestershire
Peterborough, Northamptonshire
Grantham, Lincolnshire
Stamford, Lincolnshire
Linby, Nottinghamshire

New Zealand

Airedale Road Weston